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2012 Nobel Prizes


2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine

Shinya Yamanaka of Japan and Sir John Gurdon of Britain won the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine for work in cell programming. The winners were announced on 8 October 2012. The committee said that the work of Yamanaka and Gurdon has raised dreams of replacement tissue for people crippled by disease.

2012 Nobel Prize for Physics

Serge Haroche and David Wineland of France won the 2012 Nobel Prize for Physics. The winners are announced on 9 October 2012. Haroche and Wineland have conduced the research in quantum physics that could one day open the way to supercomputers.

2012 Nobel Prize for Chemistry

American scientists Robert Lefkowitz, 69, and Brian Kobilka, 57, have won the 2012 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced on 10 October 2012 that the scientists are awarded for discovering the inner workings of G-protein-coupled receptors. Their work showed how cells in the body respond to stimuli such as rush of adrenalin etc. The committee said that their work will help in developing more effective drugs to fight diseases such as diabetes, cancer and depression.

At a news conference, Robert Lefkowitz told that he was sleeping when he received the phone call from the committee from Sweden. "I did not hear it - I must share with you that I wear earplugs to sleep. So my wife gave me an elbow. So there it was, a total shock and surprise," he said.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences will award the 8 million crown ($1.2 million) prize.

Prof Robert Lefkowitz is a professor of biomedicine and biochemistry at Duke University in North Carolina. Prof Brian Kobilka is a professor of molecular and cellular physiology at Stanford University School of Medicine in California.

2012 Nobel Prize for Literature

The 2012 Nobel Prize for literature is awarded to Chinese writer Mo Yan. The committee at the the Swedish Academy has said that Mo Yan had qualities "who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary". The award was announced on 11 October 2012.

Mo Yan was one of the three writers who is excepted to win the Nobel prize this year. He was born in 1955 in Gaomi, China.

2012 Nobel Prize for Peace

The European Union has been awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Peace for its efforts to promote peace and democracy in the Europe. The Nobel Committee said that the European Union has contributed to peace for over six decades to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe. The award was announced on 12 October 2012.

2012 Nobel Prize for Economics

The 2012 Nobel Prize for Economics is awarded to U.S. economists Alvin Roth and Lloyd Shapley. The award was announced on 14 October 2012 (Monday).

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the economics for "the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design", the research on how to match different economic agents such as students for schools or even organ donors with patients. According to the award citation, Shapley had used the game theory to study and compare various matching methods.

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